Assessment and treatment approaches are like tools in the toolbox of a mechanic. A mechanic without appropriate diagnostic tools won’t do well finding the problem. A mechanic without the appropriate physical tools won’t do well fixing the problem. Therapy is very much like this. Having the tools to diagnose joint, muscle, connective tissue, and organ system dysfunction is the starting point. Then the right manual tools are needed to resolve the dysfunctions found. If a person’s body(nervous system) doesn’t respond to one treatment approach, it’s good to have several others to try. When changes in muscle guarding and movement limitations, that drive pain symptoms, is achieved, the therapist should then reassess to look for remaining dysfunction. The old adage is true: ‘if all you have is a hammer, then everything looks like a nail’. This is one reason why physical therapists are so often associated with various exercises. Certainly, these are needed when rehabilitating from many surgeries. But more often than should be the case, exercises are simply thrust upon pain patients as a substitute for the proper system assessments and manual treatments that are needed. Several treatment approaches used in this clinic are listed in the sub-menus above.